﹝中英對照﹞

Dhammapada

 

English translated by Ācharya Buddharakkhita

 

Chinese translated by Yeh chün(葉均)

 

Chinese commented by Bhikkhu Metta(明法比丘)

 

 

 


The Dhammapada法句經﹝目錄﹞

1 - The Pairs (Dh.1-20) 6

一、雙 ... 7

2- Heedfulness (Dh.21-32) 14

二、不 ... 15

3-The Mind (Dh.33-43) 18

三、心 ... 19

4-Flower (Dh.44-59) 22

四、 ... 23

5 - The Fool (Dh.60-75) 28

五、愚 ... 29

6 - The Wise Man (Dh.76-89) 34

六、智 ... 35

7 - The Arahat (Dh.90-99) 38

七、阿 ... 39

8 - The Thousands (Dh.100-115) 42

八、千 ... 43

9 - Evil (Dh.116-128) 46

九、惡 ... 47

10 - Violence (Dh.129-145) 50

十、刀杖品 ... 51

11 - Old Age (Dh.146-156) 56

十一、老 ... 57

12 - The Self (Dh.157-166) 60

十二、自 ... 61

13 - The World (Dh.167-178) 64

十三、世 ... 65

14 - The Buddha (Dh.179-196) 68

十四、佛 ... 69

15 - Happiness (Dh.197-208) 74

十五、樂 ... 75

16 - Affection (Dh.209-220) 78

十六、喜 ... 79

17 - Anger (Dh.221-234) 82

十七、忿 ... 83

18 - Impurity (Dh.235-255) 86

十八、垢 ... 87

19 - The Just (Dh.256-272) 92

十九、法住品 ... 93

20 - The Path (Dh.273-289) 98

十、道 ... 99

21 - Miscellaneous (Dh.290-305) 104

二十一、雜 ... 105

22 - The State of Woe (Dh.306-319) 110

二十二、地 ... 111

23 - The Elephant (Dh.320-333) 114

二十三、象 ... 115

24 - Craving (Dh.334-359) 118

二十四、愛 ... 119

25 - The Monk (Dh.360-382) 128

二十五、比 ... 129

26 - The Holy Man (Dh.383-423) 138

二十六、婆 ... 139

 


﹝中英對照﹞

Dhammapada

 

English translated by Ācharya Buddharakkhita

 

Chinese translated by Yeh chün(葉均)

 

Chinese commented by Bhikkhu Metta(明法比丘)


 

《法句經》

            明法比丘

 

  《法句經》是當今南傳佛教最廣為人知的經典之一,它被收錄在巴利文大藏經中《經藏》《小部》中。《法句經》共有二十六品,四百二十三個偈誦,包羅的法義範圍很廣,它收錄了修行的金科玉律,也收錄了一般社會的道德教誡,內容平實.簡要,又有妙喻,是一本很好的入佛門的指南。

《法句經》每首都有很深奧的法義,因此,在流通本經時,往往都附有注釋,以便利學習。《法句經注》則為法句提供生動的故事,扣除重複的、相似的,還有將近有三百個故事,有的故事是膾炙人口,經常被引用來作鑑戒或警惕作用。

這個版本,英文的部份取自Ācharya Buddharakkhita(佛護)The Dhammapada,中文《法句經》偈誦為了參法師(1916~1985葉均)所翻譯的,注釋部分,我重新作注,參考一些書,特別是參考《法句經注》(Dhammapada-aṭṭhakā),增加許多濃縮的故事,以提昇可讀性。

這個版本,希望能幫助讀者提昇對法句的認識、學習、記憶、乃至背誦的意願。願本經的流通,令世間善法增上,令眾生得清涼,趨向於解脫煩惱。

 

Homage to Him, the Blessed One, the Perfected One, the Supremely Enlightened One!

The Dhammapada

1 - The Pairs (Dh.1-20)

1.Mind precedes all mental states. Mind is their chief; they are all mind-wrought. If with an impure mind a person speaks or acts, suffering follows him like the wheel that follows the foot of the ox.

 

2. Mind precedes all mental states. Mind is their chief; they are all mind wrought. If with a pure mind a person speaks or acts, happiness follows him like his never-departing shadow.

 

3. “He abused me, he struck me, he overpowered me, he robbed me”. Those who harbour such thoughts do not still their hatred.

4. “He abused me, he struck me, he overpowered me, he robbed me”. Those who do not harbour such thoughts still their hatred.

 

5. Hatred is never appeased by hatred in this world. By non-hatred alone is hatred appeased. This is an Eternal Law.

 

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wroughta.作成的、精製的。abusev. n. 辱罵、虐待。overpowerv.
擊敗、克服。appeasev.使平靜、使滿足。eternala.永恆的、永存的。

一、雙

1 諸法意先導,意主.意造作[1]。若以染污意,或語.或行業,

是則苦隨彼,如輪隨獸足[2][3]

 

2 諸法意先導,意主.意造作。若以清淨意,或語.或行業,

是則樂隨彼,如影不離形。[4]

 

3 ~ 4

3 「彼罵我.打我,敗我.劫奪我」,若人懷此念,怨恨不能息。

4 「彼罵我.打我,敗我.劫奪我」,若人捨此念,怨恨自平息。[5]

 

5 於此世界中,從非怨止怨,唯以忍止怨;此古聖常法。[6]

6. There are those who do not realize that one day we all must die. But those who realize this settle their quarrels.

 

7. Just as a storm throws down a weak tree, so does Māra overpower the man who lives for the pursuit of pleasures, who is uncontrolled in his senses, immoderate in eating, indolent and dissipated.

8. Just as a storm cannot prevail against a rocky mountain, so Māra can never overpower the man who lives meditating on the impurities, who is controlled in his senses, moderate in eating, and filled with faith and earnest effort.

 

9. Whoever being depraved, devoid of self-control and truthfulness, should don the monk’s yellow robe, he surely is not worthy of the robe.

10. But whoever is purged of depravity, well established in virtues and filled with self-control and truthfulness, he indeed is worthy of the yellow robe.

 

 

 

 

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quarreln. 爭吵、不和。 Māran. 魔。 indolenta. 懶惰的。
dissipate
v. 驅散、消失。 prevailv. 勝過。
The impurities (asubha): n.
不淨觀。depravev. 使敗壞、使墮落。
depravity
n. 墮落。 purgev. 淨化。 virtuen. 戒律、道德。

6 彼人[7]不了悟:「我等將毀滅[8]」。若彼等知此,則諍論自息。[9]

 

7 ~ 8

7 唯求住淨樂[10]不攝護諸根[11]飲食不知量[12],懈惰.不精進,

彼實為[13]伏,如風吹弱樹[14]

8 願求非樂[15]住,善攝護諸根,飲食知節量,具[16]又精進,[17]不能勝彼,如風吹石山。[18]

 

9 ~ 10

9 若人穿袈裟,不離諸垢穢,無誠實克己,不應著袈裟。

10 若人離諸垢[19],能善持戒律[20],克己與誠實,彼應著袈裟。[21]

11. Those who mistake the unessential to be essential and the essential to be unessential dwelling in wrong thoughts, never arrive at the essential.

12. Those who know the essential to be essential and the unessential to be unessential, dwelling in right thoughts, do arrive at the essential.

 

13. Just as the rain breaks through an ill-thatched house, so passion penetrates an undeveloped mind.

14. Just as rain does not break through a well-thatched house, so passion never penetrates a well-developed mind.

 

15. The evil-doer grieves here and hereafter; he grieves in both worlds. He laments and is afflicted, recollecting his own impure deeds.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_______________________

thatcheda. 茅草蓋的。 grieven. 悲傷。lament:悲嘆。 afflict:折磨。

11 ~ 12

11非真思真實[22],真實見非真,邪思惟境界,彼不達真實。

12 真實思真實,非真知非真,正思惟境界,彼能達真實。[23]

 

13 ~ 14

13 如蓋屋不密,必為雨漏浸,如是不修心,貪欲必漏入。[24]

14 如善密蓋屋,不為雨漏浸,如是善修心,貪欲不漏入。[25]

 

15 現世此處悲,死後他處悲,作諸惡業者,兩處俱憂悲,

見自惡業已,他悲.他苦惱。[26]

 

16. The doer of good rejoices here and hereafter; he rejoices in both worlds. He rejoices and exults, recollecting his own pure deeds.

 

17. The evil-doer suffers here and hereafter; they suffer in both worlds. The thought, “Evil have I done,” torments them, and he suffers even more when gone to realms of woe.

 

18. The doer of good delights here and hereafter; he delights in both worlds. The thought, “Good have I done,” delights him, and he delights even more when gone to realms of bliss.

 

19. Much though he recites the sacred texts, but acts not accordingly, that heedless man is like a cowherd who only counts the cows of others -- he does not partake of the blessings of a holy life.

20. Little though he recites the sacred texts, but puts the Teaching into practice, forsaking lust, hatred and delusion, with true wisdom and emancipated mind, clinging to nothing this or any other world -- he, indeed, partakes of the blessings of a holy life.

 

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rejoicen. 欣喜。 exultn. 狂喜。tormentn. 痛苦。 realmn. 領土、界。
woe
n. 悲哀。 heedless:不專心。sacreda. 神聖的。 cowherdn. 牧牛者。 partakea.分享的。forsakinga. 拋棄的。emancipated︰解脫的。

16 現世此處樂,死後他處樂,作諸善業者,兩處俱受樂,

見自善業已,他樂.他極樂。1

 

17 現世此處苦,死後他處苦,作諸惡業者,兩處俱受苦,

現悲「我作惡」,墮惡趣更苦。2

 

18 現世此處喜,死後他處喜,修諸福業者,兩處俱歡喜,

現喜「我修福」,生善趣更喜。3

 

19 ~ 20

19 雖多誦經集4,放逸而不行,如牧數他牛,自無沙門分。

20 雖誦經典少,能依教實行,具足正知識,除滅貪..癡,

善淨解脫心,棄捨於世欲,此界.或他界,彼得沙門分56

 

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[1] 本偈說曇彌優婆塞(Dhammika-upāsaka)的故事。住在舍衛城的曇彌樂善好施,臨終時有六天的六匹馬車來迎,他告訴兒女,他選擇去兜率天。

2 本偈說提婆達多(Devadatta)的故事。他是大師的表弟,他學成神通之後,曾以神通博得阿闍世王的信任,之後,日日獲得很多供養。他想當僧團的領導人,曾跟佛陀索眾,佛陀沒有答應。他懷恨在心,有三次謀害佛陀不成,其中一次利用山上的滾石,傷到佛足,出佛身血;殺佛不成,他就有分裂僧團的動作;又殺害蓮華色阿羅漢尼(Uppalavaṇṇa)。多項五逆罪,死後投生大阿鼻地獄(avīcimahāniraya)

3 給孤獨長者的第三女兒善意天(Sumanadevī),臨終時稱父親為「弟弟」。給孤獨長者困惑不安,以為她臨終時沒有正念。佛陀說,她臨終時正念現前,因為她證得二果,境界比給孤獨長者高,死後往生兜率天。

4經集DhAsahitanti tepiakassa buddhavacanasseta nāma.(經集:這 是佛說的三藏之名。)

5 沙門分bhāgavā sāmaññassa沙門的成分指沙門的利益道與果。

6 19-20偈說兩位好友比丘的故事。一位已證阿羅漢果,一位只精通經教。


2- Heedfulness (Dh.21-32)

 

21. Heedfulness is the path to the deathless. Heedlessness is the path to death. The heedful die not. The heedless are as if already dead.

22. Clearly understanding this excellence of heedfulness, the wise exult therein and enjoy the resort of the Noble One.

23. The wise ones, ever meditative and steadfastly persevering, alone experience Nibbāna, the incomparable freedom from bondage.

 

24. Ever grows the glory of him who is energetic, mindful and pure in conduct, discerning and self-controlled, righteous and heedful.

 

25. By effort and heedfulness, discipline and self-mastery, let the wise one make for himself an island which no flood can overwhelm.

 

 

 

 

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The Deathless (amata)︰無死(=涅槃) The Noble Ones (ariya)︰四聖諦。

exultv.歡欣。 steadfastlyadv.踏實地、不變地。 perseveringa.堅忍的。

二、不

21 ~ 23

21 無逸不死道[1],放逸趣死路2。無逸者不死,放逸者如尸。

22 智者深知此,所行不放逸。不放逸得樂,喜悅於聖境。

23 智者常堅忍,勇猛修禪定。解脫得安隱,證無上涅槃。

 

24 奮勉3常正念,淨行4能克己,如法而生活,無逸.善名增。

 

25 奮勉.不放逸,克己.自調御,智者自作洲,不為洪水沒56

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[1] 不死道amatapada,涅槃的一種名稱。《相應部》〈無為相應〉提到三十二種涅槃的別名之一‘amata’DhA.CS:pg.1.103.Amatapadanti amata vuccati nibbāna.(不死的路:「不死」被叫做「涅槃」。)

2 死路maccu (death)

3 奮勉DhAuṭṭhānavatoti uṭṭhānavīriyavantassa.(奮起:奮起的英雄本色。)

4 淨行DhASucikammassāti niddosehi niraparādhehi kāyakammādīhi samannāgatassa.(淨業 已被無為難的、無違犯的身業等俱行。)

5 不為洪水沒:智者以法與律作為依止,不為煩惱(喻作:洪水)所淹沒。DhA:「洪水為四種污染(catubbidhopi kilesogho)」。四洪水(cattāro oghā)就是四漏(四流向, 4 āsavā<(ā向﹑從…+su(sru)流動))

6 有一天,名醫耆婆(Jīvako)邀請佛陀和眾多比丘到他家接受供養,但是周利槃特(Cūḷapanthako)除外。周利槃特十分沮喪。佛陀明白他的心意後,就給他一塊布,要他一邊搓揉布塊,一邊複誦「去除污垢,去除污垢。」(‘rajoharaa rajoharaan’ti)佛陀離開後,周利槃特努力搓揉布塊,並複誦「去除污垢」,不久,布變髒了,這時候他了解到無常。佛陀就以神通力出現在他的面前,說:「不只是布因污垢而變髒,人心也有污垢,去除污垢,才能證果。」他繼續用功,不久就證得阿羅漢果


26. The foolish and ignorant indulge in heedlessness, but the wise one keeps his heedfulness as his best treasure.

27. Do not give way to heedlessness. Do not indulge in sensual pleasures. Only the heedful and meditative attain great happiness.

 

28. Just as one upon the summit of a mountain beholds the groundlings, even so when the wise man casts away heedlessness by heedfulness and ascends the high tower of wisdom, this sorrowless sage beholds the sorrowing and foolish multitude.

 

29. Heedful among the heedless, wide-awake among the sleepy, the wise man advances like a swift horse leaving behind a weak jade.

 

30. By heedfulness did Indra become the overlord of the gods. Heedfulness is ever praised, and heedlessness ever despised.

 

 

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indulgev. 沈迷,放縱自己。 treasuren. 寶藏。 summitn. 峰頂。

ascendsv. 登高。 sage︰聖者。 beholdv. 看。 multituden. 大眾。

swifta. 快速的、立刻的。 jaden. 1.玉。2.駑馬。overlord︰最高統治者。 despisedv. 鄙視。Indra: the ruler of the gods in ancient Indian mythology. (因陀羅︰古印度神的統領者。) overlordn. 最高統治者。 despisev. 鄙視。

26 ~ 27

26 暗鈍愚癡人,耽溺於放逸,智者不放逸,如富人護寶。

27 莫耽溺放逸,莫嗜愛欲樂。警覺修定者,始得大安樂。1

 

28 智者以無逸,除逸則無憂,聖賢登慧閣,觀愚者多憂,

如登於高山,俯視地上物。2

 

29 放逸中無逸,如眾睡獨醒。智者如駿馳,駑駘所不及。3

 

30 摩伽4以無逸,得為諸天主。無逸人所讚,放逸為人訶。

 

 

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1 舍衛城某次慶典時,一群年輕人惹事生非。佛陀說︰「諸愚者、無慧者會作騷擾事;有慧者像有價之財,護衛不放逸,圓滿證得不死的大涅槃。」

2有一次,大迦葉長老(Mahākassapatthera)住在畢缽離洞窟(Pipphaliguhāya)的時候,運用神通想要知道,誰有正念、誰迷糊,誰快往生了。這時候,佛陀明白大迦葉長老的作為,便告誡他:「大迦葉!你所知道的只是小境界,只有諸佛的境界才能夠知道一切眾生的生死。」

3 本偈說兩位比丘的故事,一位精進,一位懈怠,精進的比丘修習警寤瑜伽(一天當中只睡中夜10pm~2am),懈怠的比丘愛講話。精進的比丘很短的時間就證得阿羅漢果。當他們去見佛陀時,佛陀跟懈怠的比丘告誡。

4摩伽:帝釋天王七個名字之一。帝釋天王做人時有七誓約(satta vatapadāni)︰「1.願終生孝養父母。2.願終生禮敬長輩。3.願終生語柔和。4.願終生不誹謗。5.願終生守住離慳垢;舒手施、樂捨施、有求必應、樂分配施。6.願終生說真實語。7.願終生不生氣,若生氣則速制伏。」(S.11.11.cf.《雜阿含1105經》)


31. The monk who delights in heedfulness and looks with fear at 31. The monk who delights in heedfulness and looks with fear at heedlessness advances like fire, burning all fetters small and large.

 

32. The monk who delights in heedfulness and looks with fear at heedlessness will not fall. He is close to Nibbāna.

 

3-The Mind (Dh.33-43)

33. Just as a fletcher straightens an arrow shaft, even so the discerning man straightens his mind -- so fickle and unsteady, so difficult to guard and control.

34. As a fish when pulled out of water and cast on land throbs and quivers, even so is this mind agitated. Hence should one abondon the realm of Māra.

 

35. Wonderful, indeed, it is to subdue the mind, so difficult to subdue, ever swift, and seizing whatever it desires. A tamed mind brings happiness.

 

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delightsn. 愉快。 fettersn.束縛。 fletchern. 造箭者。shaftn. 箭桿。discerningv. 分辨。ficklea. 易變的,無常的。throbsv. 戰慄。

quiversv. 顫抖,發抖。

 

31 樂不放逸比丘,或者懼見放逸,猶如猛火炎炎,
燒去大[1].小結。2

 

32 樂不放逸比丘,或者懼見放逸,彼已鄰近涅槃,必定不易墮落。3

 

三、心

33 ~ 34

33 輕動變易心,難護.難制服。智者調直之,如匠4箭直。

34 如魚離水棲,投於陸地上,以此戰慄心,擺脫魔境界56

 

35 此心隨欲轉,輕躁難捉摸。善哉心調伏,心調得安樂。

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[1] :煩惱的異名。

2 本偈說一位比丘精進用功,卻感覺進步很少,他感到沮喪,他想要去見佛陀,請佛陀給予指引。在路上,他遇見熊熊大火,於是就跑到山上去觀察火勢。正當火勢漫延時,他領悟到,就像火燒毀一切東西,以聖道智之火也會燒掉大大小小的束縛。這時,佛陀出現在他的面前,說:「比丘!就如大火燒毀一切障礙,以智火能燒掉所有的結。」聽完偈頌之後,他透析燒掉束縛的事,不久,就證得阿羅漢果。

3 出生在舍衛城附近的小村莊的尼迦瑪西提舍長老(Nigamavāsitissa- tthero),出家後過著簡單的生活,有時其他比丘會誤會他的行為,如避開大型會。佛陀則讚嘆他少欲知足,說此偈。

4 :按壓及調整。

5《本事經》:「無別有一法,性躁動如心,難調御難防,大仙之所說。譬如有智人,以火等眾具,調直於利箭,令遠有所中。如是諸苾芻,應善學方便,調直於心性,令速證涅槃。」(T4.673.1)

6 Dh.33-34的因緣是:彌醯長老(Meghiyatthera)當世尊的侍者時,他中意一處風景美好的地方,打算在此禪修,三次請求,世尊並不看好,但是最後還是答應他。彌醯長老在該處停留一天,但無法降服內心的煩惱。當他回到世尊的身邊時,世尊說出此偈。(參見DhA.Ud.31)


36. Let the discerning man guard the mind, so difficult to detect and extremely subtle, seizing whatever it desires. A guarded mind brings happiness.

 

37. Dwelling in the cave (of the heart), the mind without form, wanders far and alone. Those who subdue this mind are liberated from the bonds of Māra.

 

38. Wisdom never becomes perfect in one whose mind is not steadfast, who knows not the Good Teaching and whose faith wavers.

39. There is no fear for an Awakened One, whose mind is not sodden (by lust) nor afflicted (by hate), and who has gone beyond both merit and demerit.

 

40. Realizing that this body is as fragile as a clay pot, and fortifying this mind like a well-fortified city, fight out Māra with the sword of wisdom. Then, guarding the conquest, remain unattached.

 

 

 

 

_____________________________

extremelyadv. 極端。 liberatev. 解脫,釋放。 waverv. 動搖。

soddenv. 使迷糊,使浸透。 fortifyv. 築防禦工事於,增強。

36 此心隨欲轉,微妙極難見。智者防護心,心護得安樂[27][28]

 

37 遠行與獨行,無形[29]隱深窟。誰能調伏心,解脫魔羅縛。[30]

 

38 ~ 39

38 心若不安定,又不了正法,信心不堅者,智慧不成就。

39 若得無漏心[31],亦無諸惑亂,超越善與惡[32],覺者無恐怖。[33]

 

40 知身如陶器,住心似城廓,慧劍擊魔羅,守勝.莫染著[34][35]

 

41. Ere long, alas! this body will lie upon the earth, unheeded and lifeless, like a useless log.

 

42. Whatever harm an enemy may do to an enemy, or a hater to a hater, an ill-directed mind inflicts on oneself a greater harm.

 

43. Neither mother, father, nor any other relative can do one greater good than his own well-directed mind.

 

4-Flower (Dh.44-59)

44. Who shall overcome this earth, the realm of Yama and this sphere of men and gods? Who shall bring to perfection the well-taught path of wisdom as an expert garland-maker would a floral design?

45. The Striver-on-the-Path shall overcome this earth, the realm of Yama and this sphere of men and gods. The striver-on-the-path shall bring to perfection the well-taught path of wisdom, as an expert garland-maker would a floral design.

 

 

________________________

ereconj. ...以前。 inflict︰給予(打擊),使遭受。 floral︰花的。 The striver-on-the-path︰須陀洹道,不是原文‘Sekho’「有學」(belonging to training)的正確翻譯。Yama,【陽】閻摩(死亡王國的統治者)( the ruler of the kingdom of the dead)

41 此身實不久,當睡於地下,被棄無意識,無用如木屑。[36]

 

42 仇敵害仇敵,怨家對怨家,若心向邪行[37],惡業最為大。

 

43 善非父母作,亦非他眷屬,若心向正行,善業最為大。

 

四、

44 ~ 45

44 誰征服地界[38],閻魔界.天界,誰善說法句,如巧匠[39]採花?

45 有學[40]克地界,閻魔界[41].天界,有學說法句,如巧匠採花[42]

46. Realizing that this body is like froth, penetrating its mirage-like nature, and plucking out Māra’s flower-tipped arrows (of sensuality), go beyond sight of the King of Death!

 

47. As a mighty flood sweeps away the sleeping village, so death carry away the person of distracted mind who only plucks the flowers (of pleasure).

 

48. The Destroyer brings under his sway the person of distracted mind who, insatiate in sense desires, only plucks the flowers (of pleasure).

 

49. As a bee gathers honey from the flower without injuring its colour or fragrance, even so the sage goes on alms-rounds in the village.

 

50. Let none find fault with others; let none see the omissions and commissions of others. But let one see his own acts, done and undone.

 

 

 

 

___________________________

frothn. v. 泡沫。 miragen. 海市蜃樓。 pluckv. 摘。

swayv. 動搖。 fragrancen. 芬芳。

46 知此身如泡,覺悟是幻法,折魔羅花箭[43],越死王所見。[44]

 

47 採集諸花已,其人心愛著,死神捉將去,如瀑流睡村[45]

 

48 採集諸花已,其人心愛著,貪欲無厭足,實為死魔伏。

 

49 牟尼[46]入村落,譬如蜂採華,不壞色與香,但取其蜜去。

 

50 不觀他人[47],不觀作不作,但觀自身行,已作與未作。[48]

51. Like a beautiful flower full of colour but without fragrance, even so, fruitless are the fair words of one who does not practice them.

52. Like a beautiful flower full of colour and also fragrant, even so, fruitful are the fair words of one who practices them.

 

53. As from a great heap of flowers many garlands can be made, even so should many good deeds be done by one born a mortal.

 

54. Not the sweet smell of flowers, not even the fragrance of sandal, tagara or jasmine blows against the wind. But the fragrance of the virtuous blows against the wind. Truly, virtuous pervades all directions with the fragrance of his virtue.

55.Of all the fragrances -- sandal, tagara, blue lotus and jasmine -- the fragrance of virtue is by far the sweetest.

 

56. Faint is the fragrance of tagara and sandal, but the fragrance of the virtuous is excellent, wafting even among the gods.

 

57. Māra never finds the path of the truly virtuous, who abide in heedfulness and are freed by perfect knowledge.

 

 

 

__________________________

mortal︰凡人,致命的。 waft︰吹送,飄送。

51 ~ 52

51 猶如鮮妙花,色美而無香,如是說善語,彼不行無果[49]

52 猶如鮮妙花,色美而芳香,如是說善語,彼實行有果。[50]

 

53 如從諸花聚,得造眾花鬘,如是生為人,當作諸善事。[51]

 

54~ 55

54 花香不逆風,栴檀.多伽羅,末利香[52]亦爾。德香逆風薰,

彼正人之香,遍聞於諸方。

55 栴檀.多伽羅,拔悉基[53].青蓮,如是諸香中,戒香為最上。[54]

 

56 栴檀.多伽羅,此等香甚微。持戒者最上,香薰諸天間。[55]

 

57 成就諸戒行,住於不放逸,正智解脫者,魔不知所趣[56][57]

58. Upon a heap of rubbish in the road-side ditch blooms a lotus, fragrant and pleasing.

59. Even so, on the rubbish heap of blinded mortals the disciple of the Supremely Enlightened One shines resplendent in wisdom.

 

5 - The Fool (Dh.60-75)

60. Long is the night to the sleepless; long is the league to the weary. Long is worldly existence to fools who know not the Sublime Truth.

 

61. Should a seeker not find a companion who is better or equal, let him resolutely pursue a solitary course; there is no fellowship with a fool.

 

62. The fool worries, thinking, “I have sons, I have wealth.” Indeed, when he himself is not his own, whence are sons, whence is wealth?

 

 

 

 

__________________________

rubbishn. 垃圾,廢物。ditchn.水溝。resplendenta.燦爛的,光輝的。wearya. 疲倦的。resolutelyadv. 堅決地。
solitary course(ekacariya
)︰獨行。

58 ~ 59

58 猶如糞穢聚,棄著於大道,蓮華生其中,香潔而悅意。

59 如是糞穢等,盲昧凡夫中,正覺者弟子,以智慧光照。

 

五、愚

60 不眠者夜長,倦者由旬[58]長,不明達正法──愚者輪迴長。[59]

 

61 不得勝我者為友,與我相等者亦無,寧可堅決獨行居,

不與愚人作伴侶。[60]

 

62 「此我子我財」,愚人常為憂。我且無有我,何有子與財?[61]

63. A fool who knows his foolishness is wise at least to that extent, but a fool who thinks himself wise is called a fool indeed.

 

64. Though all his life a fool associates with a wise man, he no more comprehends the Truth than a spoon tastes the flavour of the soup.

 

65. Though only for a moment a discerning person associates with a wise man, quickly he comprehends the Truth, just as the tongue tastes the flavour of the soup.

 

66. Fools of little wit are enemies unto themselves as they move about doing evil deeds, the fruits of which are bitter.

 

67. Ill done is that action doing which one repents later, and the fruits of which one reaps, weeping, reaps with tears.

 

68. Well done is that action doing which one repents not later, and the fruits of which one reaps with delight and happiness.

 

69. So long as an evil deed has not ripened, the fool thinks it as sweet as honey. But when the evil deed ripens, the fool comes to grief.

_________________________

repentv. 後悔,懊悔。

63 愚者自知愚,彼即是智人。愚人自謂智,實稱真愚夫。[62]

 

64 愚者雖終身,親近於智人,彼不了達摩[63],如匙嘗湯味。[64]

 

65 慧者須臾頃,親近於智人,能速解達摩,如舌嘗湯味。[65]

 

66 愚人不覺知,與自仇敵行,造作諸惡業,受定眾苦果。

 

67 彼作不善業,作已生後悔,哭泣淚滿面,應得受異熟[66][67]

 

68 若彼作善業,作已不追悔,歡喜而愉悅,應得受異熟。[68]

 

69 惡業未成熟,愚人思如蜜;惡業成熟時,愚人必受苦。[69]

 

70. Month after month a fool may eat his food with the tip of a blade of grass, but he still is not worth a sixteenth part of those who have comprehended the Truth.

 

71. Truly, an evil deed committed does not immediately bear fruit, like milk that does not turn sour all at once. But smouldering, it follows the fool like fire covered by ashes.

 

72. To his own ruin the fool gains knowledge, for it cleaves his head and destroys his innate goodness.

 

73. The fool seeks undeserved reputation, precedence among monks, authority over monasteries, and honour among householders.

74. “Let both laymen and monks think that it was done by me. In every work, great and small, let them follow me” -- such is the ambition of the fool; thus his desire and pride increase.

 

75. One is the quest for worldly gain, and quite another is the path to Nibbāna. Clearly understanding this, let not the monk, the disciple of the Buddha, be carried away by worldly acclaim, but develop detachment instead.

 

________________________

smoulder︰悶燒。cleavev. 劈開。

 

70 愚者月復月,雖僅取少食──孤沙草[70]端;

彼所得功德,不及思法者,十六分之一。

 

71 猶如搆牛乳,醍醐非速成。愚人造惡業,不即感惡果,

業力隨其後,如死灰覆火。[71]

 

72 愚夫求知識,反而趨滅亡,損害其幸福,破碎其頭首[72]

 

73 ~ 74

73 愚人騖虛名:僧中作上座,僧院為院主,他人求供養。

74「僧與俗共知──此事由我作,事無論大小,

皆由我作主」,愚人作此想,貪與慢增長。[73]

 

75 一道引世利,一道向涅槃[74]。佛弟子比丘,當如是了知,
莫貪著世利,專注於遠離[75][76]

6 - The Wise Man (Dh.76-89)

76. Should one find a man who points out faults and who reproves, let him follow such a wise and sagacious person as one would a guide to hidden treasure. It is always better, and never worse, to cultivate such an association.

 

77. Let him admonish, instruct and shield one from wrong; he, indeed, is dear to the good and detestable to the evil.

 

78. Do not associate with evil companions; do not seek the fellowship of the vile. Associate with good friends; seek the fellowship of noble men.

 

79. He who drinks deep the Dhamma lives happily with a tranquil mind. The wise man ever delights in the Dhamma made known by the Noble One (the Buddha).

 

80. Irrigators regulate the waters; fletchers straighten the arrow shaft; carpenters shape the wood; the wise control themselves.

 

81. Just as a solid rock is not shaken by the storm, even so the wise are not affected by praise or blame.

________________________

reprovev. 責備,指責。 sagaciousa. 睿智的。 admonishv. 訓誡。

detestable︰討厭的。Irrigator︰灌溉者。

六、

76 若見彼智者──能指示過失,並能譴責者,當與彼為友;猶如知識者,能指示寶藏。與彼智人友,定善而無惡。[77]

 

77 訓誡與教示,阻他人過惡。善人愛此人,但為惡人憎[78]

 

78 莫與惡友交,莫友卑鄙者。應與善友交,應友高尚士[79]

 

79 得飲法水者,心清而安樂[80]。智者常喜悅,聖者所說法。[81]

 

80 灌溉者引水,箭匠之矯箭,木匠之繩木,智者自調御[82]

 

81 猶如堅固巖,不為風所搖,毀謗與讚譽,智者不為動。

82. On hearing the Teachings, the wise become perfectly purified, like a lake deep, clear and still.

 

83. The good renounce (attachment for) everything; the virtuous do not prattle with a yearning for pleasures. The wise show no elation or depression when touched by happiness or sorrow.

 

84. He is indeed virtuous, wise and righteous, who neither for their own sake nor for the sake of another (does any wrong), who does not crave for sons, wealth or kingdom, and does not desire success by unjust means.

 

85. Few among men are those who cross to the farther shore. The rest, the bulk of men, only run up and down the hither bank.

86. But those who act according to the perfectly taught Dhamma will cross the realm of Death, so difficult to cross.

 

87-88. Abandoning the dark way, let the wise man cultivate the bright path. Having gone from home to homelessness, let him yearn for that delight in detachment, so difficult to enjoy. Giving up sensual pleasures, with no attachment, let the wise man cleanse himself of defilements of the mind.

 

__________________________

prattlev. 閒聊;n. 無聊話。hitheradv. 到這裡,向這裡。

82 亦如一深池,清明而澄淨,智者聞法已,如是心清淨。

 

83善人離諸欲[83],不論諸欲事。苦樂所不動,智者無喜.憂。[84]

 

84 不因自因他,智者作諸惡,不求子.求財、及謀國作惡。
不欲以非法,求自己繁榮。彼實具戒行,智慧正法者。

 

85 ~ 86

85 於此人群中,達彼岸者少。其餘諸人等,徘徊於此岸[85]

86 善能說法者,及依正法行,彼能達彼岸,度難度魔境[86]

 

87 ~ 89

87 應捨棄黑法,智者修白法[87]從家來無家[88]喜獨處不易[89]

88 當求是法樂,捨欲無所有[90],智者須清淨,自心諸垢穢。

89. Those whose minds have reached full excellence in the factors of enlightenment, who, having renounced acquisitiveness, rejoice in not clinging to things -- rid of cankers, glowing with wisdom, they have attained Nibbāna in this very life.

 

7 - The Arahat (Dh.90-99)

90. The fever of passion exists not for him who has completed the journey, who is sorrowless and wholly set free, and has broken all ties.

 

91. The mindful ones exert themselves. They are not attached to any home; like swans that abandon the lake, they leave home after home behind.

 

92. Those who do not accumulate and are wise regarding food, whose object is the Void, the Unconditioned Freedom -- their track cannot be traced, like that of birds in the air.

 

93. He whose cankers are destroyed and who is not attached to food, whose object is the Void, the unconditioned freedom -- his path cannot be traced, like that of birds in the air.

 

 

________________________

acquisitiveness︰利慾心。 cankers︰腐敗。

89 彼於諸覺支[91],正心而修習。遠離諸固執,樂捨諸愛著,

漏盡[92]而光耀,此世證涅槃。

 

七、

90 路行盡[93]無憂,於一切解脫,斷一切繫縛[94],無有苦惱者。[95]

 

91 正念奮勇者,彼不樂在家。如鵝離池去,彼等棄水家。

 

92 彼等無積聚[96],於食如實知,.無相解脫[97]──是彼所行境,如鳥遊虛空,蹤跡不可得。

 

93 彼等諸漏盡,亦不貪飲食,空.無相解脫──是彼所行境,如鳥遊虛空,蹤跡不可得。

94. Even the gods hold dear the wise one, whose senses are subdued like horses well-trained by a charioteer, whose pride is destroyed and who is free from the cankers.

 

95. There is no more worldly existence for the wise one, who, like the earth, resents nothing; who is as firm as a high pillar and as pure as a deep pool free from mud.

 

96. Calm is his thought, calm his speech and calm his deed, who, truly knowing, is wholly freed, perfectly tranquil and wise.

 

97. The man who is without blind faith, who knows the Uncreate, who has severed all links, who has destroyed all causes (for kamma, good and evil), and who has thrown out all desires -- he, truly, is the most excellent of men.

 

98. Inspiring, indeed, is that place where Arahats dwell, be it a village, a forest, a vale or a hill.

 

99. Inspiring are the forests in which worldlings find no pleasure. There the passionless will rejoice, for they seek no sensual pleasures.

 

 

__________________________

charioteer︰戰車的駕馭者。vale︰溪谷。

94 彼諸根寂靜,如御者調馬,離我慢.無漏,為天人所慕。[98]

 

95 彼已無憤恨,猶如於大地,彼虔誠堅固,如因陀揭羅[99]

如無污泥池,是人無輪迴。[100]

 

96 彼人心寂靜,語與業寂靜,正智而解脫,如是得安穩。

 

97 無信[101].知無為,斷繫.因永謝[102],棄捨於貪欲,真實無上士。

 

98 於村落林間,平地或丘陵,何處有羅漢,彼地即可慶。[103]

 

99 林野甚可樂,世人所不樂;彼喜離欲樂,不求諸欲樂。

8 - The Thousands (Dh.100-115)

100. Better than a thousand useless words is one useful word, hearing which one attains peace.

 

101. Better than a thousand useless verses is one useful verse, hearing which one attains peace.

 

102. Better than reciting a hundred meaningless verses is the reciting of one verse of Dhamma, hearing which one attains peace.

103. Though one may conquer a thousand times a thousand people in battle, yet he indeed is the noblest victor who conquers himself.

 

104-105. Self-conquest is far better than the conquest of others. Not even a god, an angel, Māra or Brahmā[104] can turn into defeat the victory of such a person who is self-subdued and ever restrained in conduct.

 

 

八、千

100 雖誦一千言,若無義理者,不如一義語,聞已得寂靜。[105]

 

101 雖誦千句偈,若無義理者,不如一句偈,聞已得寂靜。

 

102 ~ 103

102 彼誦百句偈,若無義理者,不如一法句,聞已得寂靜。

103 彼於戰場上,雖勝百萬人;未若克己者,戰士之最上![106]

 

104 ~ 105

104 能克制自己,過於勝他人。若有克己者,常行自節制。

105 天神.乾闥婆[107],魔王並梵天,皆遭於敗北,不能勝彼人。[108]

 

106. Though month after month for a hundred years one should offer sacrifices by the thousands, yet if only for a moment one should worship those of perfected minds that honour is indeed better than a century of sacrifice.

 

107. Though for a hundred years one should tend the sacrificial fire in the forest, yet if only for a moment one should worship those of perfected minds that worship is indeed better than a century of sacrifice.

 

108. Whatever gifts and oblations one seeking merit might offer in this world for a whole year, all that is not worth one fourth of the merit gained by revering the Upright Ones, which is truly excellent.

 

109. To one ever eager to revere and serve the elders, these four blessings accrue: long life and beauty, happiness and power.

 

110. Better it is to live one day virtuous and meditative than to live a hundred years immoral and uncontrolled.

 

111. Better it is to live one day wise and meditative than to live a hundred years foolish and uncontrolled.

__________________________

oblationn. 奉獻物。 accruev. 孳生,增加。sluggish a.懶散的。dissipateda. 放蕩的。

106 月月投千金──供犧牲百年,不如須臾間,

供養修己者,彼如是供養,勝祭祀百年。[109]

 

107 若人一百年──事火於林中,不如須臾間,供養修己者,彼如是供養,勝祭祀百年。[110]

 

108 若人於世間,施捨或供養[111],求福一週年,如是諸功德,

不及四分一,禮敬正直者。

 

109 好樂敬禮者,常尊於長老,四法得增長:壽..樂與力。[112]

 

110 若人壽百歲──破戒.無三昧[113],不如生一日

──持戒.修禪定。[114]

 

111 若人壽百歲──無慧.無三昧,不如生一日

──具慧.修禪定。

112. Better it is to live one day strenuous and resolute than to live a hundred years sluggish and dissipated.

 

113. Better it is to live one day seeing the rise and fall of things than to live a hundred years without ever seeing the rise and fall of things.

 

114. Better it is to live one day seeing the Deathless than to live a hundred years without ever seeing the Deathless.

 

115. Better it is to live one day seeing the Supreme Truth than to live a hundred years without ever seeing the Supreme Truth.

 

9 - Evil (Dh.116-128)

116. Hasten to do good and restrain your mind from evil. He who is slow in doing good, his mind delights in evil.

 

117. Should a person commit evil, let him not do it again and again. Let him not find pleasure therein, for painful is the accumulation of evil.

 

 

 

_______________________

strenuous︰費勁的,費力的。 accumulation︰累積物,累積物。

112 若人壽百歲──怠惰.不精進,不如生一日

──勵力行精進。

 

113 若人壽百歲──不見生滅法,不如生一日

──得見生滅法[115][116]

 

114 若人壽百歲──不見不死道[117],不如生一日

──得見不死道。[118]

 

115 若人壽百歲──不見最上法,不如生一日

──得見最上法[119]

九、惡

116 應急速作善,制止罪惡心。怠慢作善者,心則喜於惡。

 

117 若人作惡已,不可數數[120]作;莫喜於作惡,積惡則受苦。

118. Should a person do good, let him do it again and again. Let him find pleasure therein, for blissful is the accumulation of good.

 

119. It may be well with the evil-doer as long as the evil ripens not, but when it does ripen, then the evil-doer sees (the painful results of) his evil deeds.

120. It may be ill with the doer of good as long as the good ripens not. But when it does ripen, then the doer of good sees (the pleasant results of) his good deeds.

 

121. Think not lightly of evil, saying, “It will not come to me.” Drop by drop is the water pot filled; likewise, the fool, gathering it little by little, fills himself with evil.

 

122. Think not lightly of good, saying, “It will not come to me.” Drop by drop is the water pot filled; likewise, the wise man, gathering it little by little, fills himself with good.

 

123. Just as a trader with a small escort and great wealth would avoid a perilous route, or just as one desiring to live avoids poison, even so should one shun evil.

 

 

_________________________

escortn. 護衛,護送,陪同。perilousa. 危險的,冒險的。

118 若人作善已,應復數數作;當喜於作善,積善則受樂。[121]

 

119 ~ 120

119 惡業未成熟,惡者以為樂。惡業成熟時,惡者方見惡。

120 善業未成熟,善人以為苦。善業成熟時,善人始見善。

 

121 莫輕於小[122]惡!謂「我不招報」,須知滴水落,
亦可滿水瓶,愚夫盈其惡,少許少許積。[123]

 

122 莫輕於小善!謂「我不招報」,須知滴水落,

亦可滿水瓶,智者完其善,少許少許積。

 

123 商人避險道,伴少而貨多;愛生避毒品[124],避惡當亦爾。[125]

124. If on the hand there is no wound, one may even carry poison in it. Poison does not affect one who is free from wounds. For him who does no evil, there is no ill.

 

125. Like fine dust thrown against the wind, evil falls back upon that fool who offends an inoffensive, pure and guiltless man.

126. Some are born in the womb; the wicked are born in hell; the devout go to heaven; the stainless pass into Nibbāna.

 

127. Neither in the sky nor in mid-ocean, nor by entering into mountain clefts, nowhere in the world is there a place where one may escape from the results of evil deeds.

 

128. Neither in the sky nor in mid-ocean, nor by entering into mountain clefts, nowhere in the world is there a place where one will not be overcome by death.

 

10 - Violence (Dh.129-145)

129. All tremble at violence; all fear death. Putting oneself in the place of another, one should not kill nor cause another to kill.

 

_________________________

inoffensivea. 無害的。 wicked a. 邪惡的。 cleftn. 裂縫。

tremblen. v. 發抖,震顫。

124 假若無有瘡傷手,可以其手持毒藥。毒不能患無傷手。

不作惡者便無惡。

 

125 若犯無邪者,清淨無染者,罪惡向愚人,如逆風揚塵。[126]

 

126 有人生於母胎中,作惡者則墮地獄,正直之人昇天界,
漏盡者證入涅槃。

 

127 非於虛空及海中,亦非入深山洞窟,欲求逃遁惡業者,世間實無可覓處。

 

128 非於虛空及海中,亦非入深山洞窟,欲求不為死魔制,
世間實無可覓處。

 

十、刀杖品

129 一切懼刀杖[127],一切皆畏死,以自[128]他情,莫殺教他殺。[129]

130. All tremble at violence; life is dear to all. Putting oneself in the place of another, one should not kill nor cause another to kill.

 

131. One who, while himself seeking happiness, oppresses with violence other beings who also desire happiness, will not attain happiness hereafter.

132. One who, while himself seeking happiness, does not oppress with violence other beings who also desire happiness, will find happiness hereafter.

 

133. Speak not harshly to anyone, for those thus spoken to might retort. Indeed, angry speech hurts, and retaliation may overtake you.

134. If, like a broken gong, you silence yourself, you have approached Nibbāna, for vindictiveness is no more in you.

 

135.Just as a cowherd drives the cattle to pasture with a staff, so do old age and death drive the life force of beings (from existence to existence).

 

 

 

 

____________________

hereafteradv. 此後。 harshly︰粗糙地。 retaliationn. 報復。

vindictivenessn. 惡毒。

130 一切懼刀杖,一切皆愛生,以自度他情,莫殺教他殺。[130]

 

131 ~ 132

131 於求樂有情,刀杖加惱害,但求自己樂,後世樂難得。

132 於求樂有情,不加刀杖害,欲求自己樂,後世樂可得。[131]

 

133 ~ 134

133 對人莫說粗惡語,汝所說者還說汝。憤怒之言實堪痛;

互擊刀杖可傷汝。

134 汝若自默然,如一破銅鑼,已得涅槃路;於汝無諍故。[132]

 

135 如牧人以杖,驅牛至牧場,如是老與死,驅逐眾生命。[133]

136. When fools commit evil deeds, he does not realize (their evil nature). The witless man is tormented by his own deeds, like one burnt by fire.

 

137. He who inflict violence on those who are unarmed, and offends those who are inoffensive, will soon come upon one of these ten states:

138-140. (1)Sharp pain, or disaster, (2)bodily injury, (3)serious illness, (4)or derangement of mind, (5)trouble from the government, (6)or grave charges, (7)loss of relatives, (8)or loss of wealth, (9)or houses destroyed by a ravaging fire, (10)and upon dissolution of the body those ignorant man is born in hell.

 

141. Neither going about naked, nor matted locks, nor filth, nor fasting, nor lying on the ground, nor smearing oneself with ashes and dust, nor sitting on the heels (in penance) can purify a mortal who has not overcome doubt.

 

142. Even though he be well-attired, yet if he is poised, calm, controlled and established in the holy life, having set aside violence towards all beings -- one, truly, is a holy man, a renunciate, a monk.

 

 

__________________________

ravagen. v. 毀滅。 renunciaten. 棄世者。

136 愚夫造作諸惡業,卻不自知有果報,癡人以自業感苦,
宛如以火而自燒。[134]

 

137 ~ 140

137 若以刀杖害,無惡無害者,十事中一種,彼將迅速得。

138 (1)極苦痛失財,(2)身體被損害,(3)或重病所逼,(4)或失心狂亂。

139 (5)或為王迫害,(6)或被誣重罪,(7)或眷屬離散,(8)或破滅財產。

140 (9)或彼之房屋,為劫火焚燒。(10)癡者身亡後,復墮於地獄。[135]

 

141非裸行結髮,非塗泥絕食,臥地自塵身,非以蹲踞住[136],不斷疑惑者,能令得清淨。[137]

 

142 嚴身住寂靜,調御而克制,必然修梵行,不以刀杖等,

加害諸有情,彼即婆羅門,彼即是沙門,彼即是比丘[138]

143. Only rarely is there a man in this world who, restrained by modesty, avoids reproach, as a thoroughbred horse avoids the whip.

144. Like a thoroughbred horse touched by the whip, be strenuous, be filled with spiritual yearning. By faith and moral purity, by effort and meditation, by investigation of the truth, by being rich in knowledge and virtue, and by being mindful, destroy this unlimited suffering.

 

145. Irrigators regulate the waters; fletchers straighten arrow shafts; carpenters shape wood; and the good control themselves.

 

11 - Old Age (Dh.146-156)

146. When this world is ever ablaze, why this laughter, why this jubilation? Shrouded in darkness, will you seek the light?

 

147. Behold this body -- a painted image, a mass of heaped up sores, infirm, full of hankering – of which nothing lasting or stable.

 

 

_______________________

reproachv. n. 責備。thoroughbreda. 良種的,純種的。ablazea. adv.

著火。jubilationn. 歡慶。shroudv. n. 覆蓋;掩蔽。soren. 痛處。

143 ~ 144

143 以慚自禁者,世間所罕有,彼善避羞辱,如良馬避鞭。

144 如良馬加鞭,當奮勉懺悔。以信..精進,以及三摩地,善分別正法,以及明行足[139],汝當念勿忘,消滅無窮苦。[140]

 

145 灌溉者引水,箭匠之矯箭,木匠之繩木,善行者自御。

 

十一、老

146 常在燃燒[141]中,何喜.何可笑?幽暗[142]之所蔽,
何不求光明?

 

147 觀此粉飾身:[143].一堆骨,疾病.多思惟[144]。絕非常存者。

148. Fully worn out is this body, a nest of disease, and fragile. This foul mass breaks up, for death is the end of life.

 

149. These dove-coloured bones are like gourds that lie scattered about in autumn. Having seen them, how can one seek delight?

 

150. This city (body) is built of bones, plastered with flesh and blood; within are decay and death, pride and jealousy.

 

151. Even gorgeous royal chariots wear out, and indeed this body too wears out. But the Dhamma of the Good does not age; thus the Good make it known to the good.

 

152. The man of little learning grows old like a bull. He grows only in bulk, but his wisdom does not grow.

 

153. Through many a birth in sasāra have I wandered in vain, seeking the builder of this house (of life). Repeated birth is indeed suffering!

154. O house-builder, you are seen! You will not build this house again. For your rafters are broken and your ridgepole shattered. My mind has reached the Unconditioned; I have attained the destruction of craving.

___________________________

plasterv. 塗抹。 gorgeousa. 燦爛的,華麗的。 rafterv.n. 椽。
ridgepole
n. 房屋的棟木。

148 此衰老形骸,病藪[145]而易壞;朽聚必毀滅,有生終歸死。

 

149 猶如葫盧瓜,散棄於秋季,骸骨如鴿色,觀此何可樂?

 

150 此城骨所建,塗以血與肉,儲藏老與死,及慢並虛偽[146][147]

 

151 盛飾王車亦必朽,此身老邁當亦爾。唯善人法[148]不老朽,

善人傳示於善人。

 

152 寡聞之愚人,生長如牡牛,唯增長筋肉,而不增智慧。

 

153 ~154

153 經多生輪迴,尋求造屋者[149],但未得見之,痛苦再再生。

154 已見造屋者!不再造於屋。椽桷[150]皆毀壞,棟樑[151]亦摧折。

我既證無為一切愛盡滅[152]

155. Those who in youth have not led the holy life, or have failed to acquire wealth, languish like old cranes in a pond without fish.

156. Those who in youth have not led the holy life, or have failed to acquire wealth, lie sighing over the past, like worn-out arrows (shot from) a bow.

 

12 - The Self (Dh.157-166)

157. If one holds oneself dear, one should diligently watch oneself. Let the wise man keep vigil during any of the three watches of the night.

 

158. One should first establish oneself in what is proper; then only should one instruct others. Thus the wise man will not be reproached.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_______________________

languishv.焦思。 vigiln. 警戒。

155 ~156

155 少壯不得財[153],並不修梵行,如池邊老鷺,無魚而萎滅。

156 少壯不得財,並不修梵行,臥如破折弓,悲歎於過去。[154]

 

十二、自

157 若人知自愛,須善自保護。三時[155]中一時,智者應醒覺。[156]

 

158 第一將自己,安置於正道,然後教他人;賢者始無過。

159. One should do what one teaches others to do; if one would train others, one should be well-controlled oneself. Difficult, indeed is self-control.

 

160. One truly is the protector of oneself; who else could the protector be? With oneself fully controlled, one gains a mastery that is hard to gain.

 

161. The evil a witless man does by himself, born of himself and produced by himself, grinds him as a diamond grinds a hard gem.

 

162. Just as a jungle creeper strangles the tree on which it grows, even so a man who is exceedingly depraved harms himself as an enemy might wish.

 

163. Easy to do are things that are bad and harmful to oneself. But exceedingly difficult to do are things that are good and beneficial.

 

 

 

 

 

___________________________

grindv. 磨,磨成。 depraveda. 墮落的,邪惡的。

159 若欲誨他者,應如己所行,自制乃制他,克己實最難。

 

160 自為自依怙,他人何可依[157]?自己善調御,證難得所依[158]

 

161 惡業實由自己作,從自己生而自起。惡業摧壞於愚者,猶如金剛破寶石。[159]

 

162 破戒如蔓蘿[160],纏覆裟羅樹。彼自如此作,徒快敵者意。

 

163 不善事易作,然無益於己;善與利益事,實為極難行。[161]

164. Whoever, on account of perverted views, scorns the Teaching of the Perfected Ones, the Noble and Righteous Ones of righteous life -- that fool, like the bamboo, produces fruits only for self-destruction.

 

165. By oneself is evil done, by oneself is one defiled. By oneself is evil left undone, by oneself is one made pure. Purity and impurity depend on oneself; no one can purify another.

 

166. Let one not neglect his own welfare for the sake of another, however great. Clearly understanding his own welfare, let one be intent upon the good.

 

13 - The World (Dh.167-178)

167. Follow not the vulgar way; live not in heedlessness; hold not false views; linger not long in worldly existence.

 

168. Arise! Do not be heedless! Lead a righteous life. The righteous live happily both in this world and the next.

169. Lead a righteous life; lead not a base life. The righteous

live happily both in this world and the next.

 

__________________________

perverteda. 使變壞的,腐蝕的。 intenta.熱切的。

164 惡慧.愚癡人,以其邪見故,侮蔑羅漢教,依正法行者,

以及尊者教,而自取毀滅,如格他格草[162],結果自滅亡。

 

165 惡實由己作,染污亦由己;由己不作惡,清淨亦由己。

.不淨依己,他何能淨他?

 

166 莫以利他事,忽於己利益[163]。善知己利者,常專心利益。[164]

 

十三、世

167 莫從卑劣法[165]。莫住於放逸。莫隨於邪見。莫增長世俗[166]

 

168 ~169

168 奮起莫放逸!行正法善行。依正法行者,此世.他世樂。

169 行正法善行。勿行於惡行。依正法行者,此世.他世樂。

170. One who looks upon the world as a bubble and a mirage, him the King of Death sees not.

 

171. Come! Behold this world, which is like a decorated royal chariot. Here fools flounder, but the wise have no attachment to it.

 

172. He who having been heedless is heedless no more, illuminates this world like the moon freed from clouds.

 

173. He who by good deeds covers the evil he has done, illuminates this world like the moon freed from clouds.

 

174. Blind is this world; here only a few possess insight. Only a few, like birds escaping from a net, go to the realms of bliss.

 

175. Swans fly on the path of the sun; men pass through the air by psychic powers; the wise are led away from the world after vanquishing Māra and his host.

 

 

 

 

 

________________________

vanquishv. 征服。 scornn. v. 輕蔑,藐視

170 視如水上浮漚,視如海市蜃樓,若人觀世如是,

死王不得見他。[167]

 

171 來看這個世界,猶如莊嚴王車。愚人沈湎此中,

智者毫無執著。[168]

 

172 若人先放逸,但後不放逸。彼照耀此世,如月出雲翳。[169]

 

173 若作惡業已,覆之以善者。彼照耀此世,如月出雲翳。[170]

 

174 此世界盲暝,能得見者少。如鳥脫羅網,鮮有昇天者。

 

175 天鵝飛行太陽道[171],以神通力[172]可行空。智者破魔王魔眷,得能脫離於世間。[173]

176. For a liar who has violated the one law (of truthfulness), who holds in scorn the hereafter, there is no evil that they cannot do.

 

177. Truly, misers fare not to heavenly realms; nor, indeed, do fools praise generosity. But wise man rejoices in giving, and by that alone does he become happy hereafter.

 

178. Better than sole sovereignty over the earth, better than going to heaven, better even than lordship over all the worlds is the Supramundane Fruition of Stream-entry.

 

14 - The Buddha (Dh.179-196)

179. By what track can you trace that trackless Buddha of limitless range, whose victory nothing can undo, whom none of the vanquished defilements can ever pursue?

180. By what track can you trace that trackless Buddha of limitless range, in whom exists no longer the entangling and embroiling craving that perpetuates becoming?

 

181. Those wise ones who are devoted to meditation and who delight in the calm of renunciation -- such mindful ones, Supreme Buddhas, even the gods hold dear.

___________________________

generosityn. 慷慨。 Stream-entry(sotāpatti)the first stage of supramundane attainment.(須陀洹︰出世間體證的第一階)

sovereigntyn. 主權,統治權。 entanglev. 纏住。embroilv. 使混亂。perpetuatev. 使永久存在。

176 違犯一乘法[174],及說妄語者,不信來世者,則無惡不作。[175]

 

177 慳者不生天。愚不讚布施。智者隨喜施,後必得安樂。

 

178 一統大地者,得生天上者,一切世界主,不及預流[176]勝。

 

十四、佛

179 ~180

179 彼之勝利無能勝,敗者於世無可從,佛智無邊.無行跡[177],汝復以何而誑惑?

180 彼已不具於結縛,愛欲難以誘使去,佛智無邊.無行跡,汝復以何而誑惑?

 

181 智者修禪定[178],喜出家.寂靜[179],正念.正覺者,天人所敬愛。

182. Hard is it to be born a human; hard is the life of mortals. Hard is it to gain the opportunity to hear the Sublime Truth, and hard to encounter is the arising of the Buddhas.

 

183. To avoid all evil, to cultivate good, and to cleanse his mind -- this is the teaching of the Buddhas.

184. Enduring patience is the highest austerity. “Nibbāna is supreme,” say the Buddhas. He is not a true monk who harms another, nor a real renunciate who oppresses others.

185. Not despising, not harming, restraint according to the code of monastic discipline, moderation in food, dwelling in solitude, devotion to meditation -- this is the teaching of the Buddhas.

 

186-187. There is no satisfying sensual desires, even with a rain of gold coins. For sensual pleasures give little satisfaction and much pain. Having understood this, the wise man finds no delight even in heavenly pleasures. The disciple of the Supreme Buddha delights in the destruction of craving.

 

 

 

 

 

 

__________________________

endurev. 忍耐,持續。 austerityn. 苦行。

182 得生人道難,生得壽終難,得聞正法難,遇佛出世難。[180]

 

183 ~185

183 一切惡莫作,一切善應行,自調淨其意,是則諸佛教。[181]

184 諸佛說涅槃最上,忍辱為最高苦行。害他實非出家者,

惱他不名為沙門。

185 不誹與不害,嚴持於戒律[182],飲食知節量,遠處而獨居,

勤修增上定[183],是為諸佛教。[184]

 

186 ~187

186 即使雨金錢,欲心不滿足。智者知淫欲,樂少而苦多!

187 故彼於天欲,亦不起希求。正覺者弟子,希滅於愛欲。[185]

188. Driven by fear, do men go for refuge to many places -- to hills, woods, groves, trees and shrines.

189. Such, indeed, is no safe refuge; such is not the refuge supreme. Not by resorting to such a refuge is one released from all suffering.

190-191. He who have gone for refuge to the Buddha, his Teaching and his Order, penetrates with transcendental wisdom the Four Noble Truths -- suffering, the cause of suffering, the cessation of suffering, and the Noble Eightfold Path leading to the cessation of suffering.

192. This indeed is the safe refuge, this is the refuge supreme. Having gone to such a refuge, one is released from all suffering.

 

193. Hard to find is the thoroughbred man (the Buddha), he is not born everywhere. Where such a wise man is born, that clan thrives happily.

 

194. Blessed is the birth of the Buddhas; blessed is the enunciation of the sacred Teaching; blessed is harmony in the Order; and blessed is the spiritual pursuit of the united truth-seekers.

 

 

__________________________

Ordersaghan.僧團。

188 ~ 192

188 諸人恐怖故,去皈依山岳,或依於森林,園苑.樹支提[186]

189 此非安穩依,此非最上依,如是皈依者,不離一切苦。

190 若人皈依佛,皈依法及僧,由於正智慧,得見四聖諦[187]

191 苦與苦之因,以及苦之滅,並八支聖道,能令苦寂滅。

192 此皈依安穩,此皈依無上,如是皈依者,解脫一切苦。[188]

 

193 聖人[189]極難得,彼非隨處生;智者所生處[190],家族咸蒙慶。[191]

 

194 諸佛出現樂,演說正法樂,僧伽和合樂,修士和合樂。[192]

195-196. He who revere those worthy of reverence, the Buddhas and their disciples, who have transcended all obstacles and passed beyond the reach of sorrow and lamentation -- he who revere such peaceful and fearless ones, his merit none can compute by any measure.

 

15 - Happiness (Dh.197-208)

197. Happy indeed we live, friendly amidst the hostile. Amidst hostile people we dwell free from hatred.

198. Happy indeed we live, unafflicted amidst the afflicted (by craving). Amidst afflicted men we dwell free from affliction.

199. Happy indeed we live, free from avarice amidst the avaricious. Amidst avaricious people we dwell free from avarice.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

________________________

reverencen. v. 尊敬。 lamentationn. 悲歎。 unafflictv. 無折磨。

avaricen. 貪婪。 begetv. 引起,招致。

195 ~ 196

195 供養應供者──脫離於虛妄,超越諸憂患,佛及佛弟子。

196 若供養如是──寂靜無畏者,其所得功德,無能測量者。[193]

 

十五、樂

197 ~ 199

197 我等[194]實樂生,憎怨中無憎。於憎怨人中,我等無憎住。

198 我等實樂生,疾病[195]中無病。於疾病人中,我等無病住。

199 我等實樂生,貪欲中無欲。於貪欲人中,我等無欲住。[196]

200. Happy indeed we live, we who possess nothing. Feeders on joy we shall be, like the Radiant Gods.

 

201. Victory begets enmity; the defeated dwell in pain. Happily the peaceful live, discarding both victory and defeat.

 

202. There is no fire like lust and no crime like hatred. There is no ill like the aggregates (of existence) and no bliss higher than the peace (of Nibbāna).

 

203. Hunger is the worst disease, conditioned things the worst suffering. Knowing this as it really is, the wise realize Nibbāna, the highest bliss.

 

204. Health is the precious gain and contentment the greatest wealth. A trustworthy person is the best kinsman, Nibbāna the highest bliss.

 

205. Having savoured the taste of solitude and peace (of Nibbāna), pain-free and stainless he becomes, drinking deep the taste of the bliss of Truth.

 

 

 

 

__________________________

aggregates(of existence) (khandha)n.pl. 五蘊。

A trustworthy person is the best kinsman[vissāsa信賴][paramā最超越(陰單主格, a.)] [ñātī親屬(陰單主格)] savourn. 滋味。

200 我等實樂生[197],我等無物障[198],我等樂為食,如光音天[199]人。

 

201 勝利生憎怨,敗者住苦惱。勝.敗兩俱捨,和靜[200]住安樂。[201]

 

202無火如貪欲,無惡如瞋恨,無苦如蘊,無樂勝寂靜[202]

 

203 飢為最大病,[203]為最大苦;如實知此已,涅槃樂最上。

 

204 無病最上利,知足最上財,信賴最上親,涅槃最上樂。[204]

 

205 已飲獨居味,以及寂靜味,喜飲於法味,離怖畏去惡。

206. Good it is to see the Noble Ones, to live with them is ever blissful. One will always be happy by not encountering fools.

207. Indeed, he who moves in the company of fools grieves for long. Association with fools is ever painful, like partnership with an enemy. But association with the wise is happy, like meeting his own kinsmen.

208.Therefore, follow the Noble One, who is steadfast, wise, learned, dutiful and devout. One should follow only such a man, who is truly good and discerning, even as the moon follows the path of the stars.

 

16 - Affection (Dh.209-220)

209. Giving himself to things to be shunned and not exerting where exertion is needed, a seeker after pleasures, having give up his true welfare, envies those intent upon theirs.

210. Seek no intimacy with the beloved and also not with the unloved, for not to see the beloved and to see the unloved, both are painful.

 

211. Therefore, hold nothing dear, for separation from the dear is painful. There are no bonds for those who have nothing beloved or unloved.

 

212.From endearment springs grief, from endearment springs fear.  For those who are wholly free from endearment there is no grief, whence then fear?

___________________________

shunv. 迴避。 intimacyn. 熟悉,親密。 endearmentn. 愛意。

206 ~ 208

206 善哉見聖者,與彼同住樂。由不見愚人,彼即常歡樂。

207 與愚者同行,長時處憂悲。與愚同住苦,如與敵同居。

與智者同住,樂如會親族。

208 是故真實:賢者.智者.多聞者,持戒虔誠與聖者,

從斯善人賢慧遊,猶如月從於星道。[205]

 

十六、喜

209 ~ 211

209 專事不當事,不事於應修,棄善.趨愛欲,卻羨自勉者[206]

210 莫結交愛人,莫結不愛人。不見愛人苦,見憎人亦苦。

211 是故莫愛著,愛別離為苦。若無愛與憎,彼即無羈縛。[207]

 

212 從喜愛生憂,從喜愛生怖;離喜愛無憂,何處有恐怖。[208]

 

213. From affection springs grief, from affection springs fear.  For him who is wholly free from affection there is no grief, whence then fear?

 

214. From attachment springs grief, from attachment springs fear. For him who is wholly free from attachment there is no grief, whence then fear?

 

215. From lust springs grief, from lust springs fear. For him who is wholly free from lust there is no grief, whence then fear.

 

216.From craving springs grief, from craving springs fear. For him who is wholly free from craving there is no grief, whence then fear?

 

217. People hold dear him who embodies virtue and insight, who is principled, has realized the Truth, and who himself does what he ought to be doing.

 

218. One who is intent upon the Ineffable (Nibbāna) and dwells with mind inspired (by supramundane wisdom), and is no more bound by sense pleasures – such a man is called “One Bound Upstream”.

___________________________

embodyv. 體現,使具體化。 ineffablea. n. 難以形容。

One Bound Upstreama Non-returner (anāgāmi)(不來果(阿那含)).

213 從親愛生憂,從親愛生怖;離親愛無憂,何處有恐怖。[209]

 

214 從貪欲生憂,從貪欲生怖;離貪欲無憂,何處有恐怖。

 

215 從欲樂生憂,從欲樂生怖;離欲樂無憂,何處有恐怖。

 

216 從愛欲生憂,從愛欲生怖;離愛欲無憂,何處有恐怖。[210]

 

217 具戒及正見,住法[211]知真諦,圓滿自所行,彼為世人愛。[212]

 

218 渴求離言法[213],充滿思慮心,諸欲心不著,是名上流人[214]

219. When, after a long absence, a man safely returns home from afar, his relatives, friends and well-wishers welcome him home on arrival.

220. As kinsmen welcome a dear one on arrival, even so his own good deeds will welcome the doer of good who has gone from this world to the next.

 

17 - Anger (Dh.221-234)

221. One should give up anger, renounce pride, and overcome all fetters. Suffering never befalls those who cling not to mind and body and is detached.

 

222. He who checks rising anger as a charioteer checks a rolling chariot, him I call a true charioteers; others only hold the reins.

 

223. Overcome the angry by non-anger; overcome the wicked by goodness; overcome the miser by generosity; overcome the liar by truth.

 

224. Speak the truth; yield not to anger; when asked, give even if you only have a little. By these three means can one reach the presence of the gods.

 

___________________________

renouncev. 拋棄。 reinsn.

219 ~ 220

219 久客異鄉者,自遠處安歸,親友與知識,歡喜而迎彼。

220 造福亦如是,從此生彼界,福業如親友,以迎愛者來。[215]

 

十七、忿

221 捨棄於忿怒,除滅於我慢,解脫一切[216],不執著.[217]

彼無一物者,苦不能相隨。

 

222 若能抑忿發,如止急行車,是名善御者,餘為執韁人。[218]

 

223 以不忿勝忿。以善勝不善。以施勝慳吝。以實勝虛妄。[219]

 

224 諦語[220].不瞋恚,分施與乞者;以如是三事,能生於諸天。

225. Those sages who are inoffensive and ever restrained in body, go to the Deathless State, where, having gone, they grieve no more.

 

226. Those who are ever vigilant, who discipline themselves day and night, and are ever intent upon Nibbāna -- their defilements fade away.

 

227. O Atula! Indeed, this is an ancient practice, not one only of today: they blame those who remain silent, they blame those who speak much, they blame those who speak in moderation. There is none in this world who is not blamed.

228.There never was, there never will be, nor is there now, a person who is wholly blamed or wholly praised.

229. But the man whom the wise praise, after observing him day after day, is one of flawless character, wise, and endowed with knowledge and virtue.

230.Who can blame such a one, as worthy as a coin of refined gold? Even the gods praise him; by Brahma, too, is the person praised.

 

 

 

 

___________________________

vigilanta. 警寤的,警戒的。 moderationn. 溫和。

225 彼無害牟尼,常調伏其身,到達不死境無有悲憂處。[221]

 

226 恆常醒覺者,日夜勤修學,志向於涅槃,息滅諸煩惱。[222]

 

227 ~ 230

227 阿多羅[223]應知:此非今日事,古語已有之。默然為人誹,

多語為人誹,寡言為人誹;不為誹謗者,斯世實無有。

228 全被人誹者,或全被讚者,非曾有.當有[224],現在亦無有。

229 若人朝朝自反省,行無瑕疵並賢明,智慧.戒行兼具者,

彼為智人所稱讚。

230 品如閻浮金[225],誰得誹辱之?彼為婆羅門,諸天所稱讚。

231. Let a man guard himself against irritability in bodily action; let him be controlled in bodily deed. Abandoning bodily misconduct, let him practice good conduct in deed.

232.Let a man guard himself against irritability in speech; let him be controlled in speech. Abandoning verbal misconduct, let him practice good conduct in speech.

233. Let a man guard himself against irritability in thought; let him be controlled in mind. Abandoning mental misconduct, let him practice good conduct in thought.

234. The wise are controlled in bodily action, controlled in speech and controlled in thought. They are truly well-controlled.

 

18 - Impurity (Dh.235-255)

235. Like a withered leaf are you now; death’s messengers await you. You stand on the eve of your departure, yet you have made no provision for your journey!

236. Make an island for yourself! Strive hard and become wise! Rid of impurities and cleansed of stain, you shall enter the celestial abode of the Noble Ones.

 

 

 

 

____________________________

irritabilityn. 易怒。 withereda. 枯萎的。

231 ~ 234

231 攝護身忿怒,調伏於身行。捨離身惡行,以身修善行。

232 攝護語忿怒,調伏於語行。捨離語惡行,以語修善行。

233 攝護意忿怒,調伏於意行。捨離意惡行,以意修善行。

234 智者身調伏,亦復語調伏,於意亦調伏,實一切調伏。[226]

 

十八、垢

235 ~ 238

235 汝今已似枯燋葉,閻魔使者近身邊。汝已佇立死門前,旅途汝亦無資糧[227]

236 汝宜自造安全洲[228],迅速精勤為智者。拂除塵垢無煩惱,

得達諸天之聖境[229]

 

237. Your life has come to an end now; you are setting forth into the presence of Yama, the King of Death. No resting place is there for you on the way, yet you have made no provision for your journey!

238. Make an island for yourself! Strive hard and become wise! Rid of impurities and cleansed of stain, you shall not come again to birth and decay.

 

239.One by one, little by little, moment by moment, a wise man should remove his own impurities, as a smith removes the dross from silver.

 

240. Just as rust arising from iron eats away the base from which it arises, even so, their own deeds lead transgressors to states of woe.

 

241. Non-repetition is the bane of scriptures; neglect is the bane of a home; slovenliness is the bane of personal appearance, and heedlessness is the bane of a guard.

 

242. Unchastity is the taint in a woman; niggardliness is the taint in a giver. Taints, indeed, are all evil things, both in this world and the next.

243. A worse taint than these is ignorance, the worst of all taints. Destroy this one taint and become taintless, O monks!

 

___________________________

setting forth︰提出。 provisionn. 資糧。 transgressorn. 犯法者。banen. 禍根。 slovenlya. 懶散的。 unchastityn.不貞。niggardlya.吝嗇的。

237 汝今壽命行已終,汝已移步近閻魔。道中既無停息處,

旅途汝亦無資糧。

238 汝宜自造安全洲,迅速精勤為智者。拂除塵垢無煩惱,

不復重來生與老。[230]

 

239 剎那.剎那間,智者分分除,漸拂自垢穢,如冶工鍛金。[231]

 

240 如鐵自生鏽,生已自腐蝕,犯罪者亦爾,自業導惡趣。

 

241 不誦經典穢,不勤為家穢,懶惰為色穢,放逸護衛穢[232]

242 ~ 243

242 邪行婦人穢,吝嗇施者穢。此界及他界,惡法實為穢。

243 此等諸垢中,無明垢為最,汝當除此垢,成無垢比丘!

244. Easy is life for the shameless one who is as impudent as a crow, back-biting and forward, arrogant and corrupt.

245. Difficult is life for the modest one who always seeks purity, is detached and unassuming, clean in life, and discerning.

 

246-247. One who destroys life, utters lies, takes what is not given, goes to another man’s wife, and is addicted to intoxicating drinks—such a man digs up his own root even in this very world.

248. Know this, O good man: evil things are difficult to control. Let not greed and wickedness drag you to protracted misery.

 

249. People give according to their faith or regard. If one becomes discontented with the food and drink given by others, one does not attain meditative absorption, either by day or by night.

250. But he in whom this (discontent) is fully destroyed, uprooted and extinct, he attains absorption, both by day and by night.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

________________________

impudenta. 無禮的。 arroganta. 傲慢的。protracteda. 拖延的。

244 ~ 245

244 生活無慚愧,鹵莽如烏鴉,詆毀於他人,大膽自誇張,
傲慢邪惡者,其人生活易。

245 生活於慚愧,常求於清淨,不著欲謙遜,住清淨生活,

富於識見者,其人生活難[233]

 

246 ~ 248

246 若人於世界,殺生.說妄語,取人所不與,犯於別人妻。

247 及耽湎飲酒,行為如是者,即於此世界,毀掘自善根。

248 如是汝應知:不制則為惡;莫貪與非法,自陷於永苦。[234]

 

249 ~ 250

249 若信樂故施。心嫉他得食,彼於晝或夜,不得入三昧。

250 若斬斷此心,拔根及除滅,則於晝或夜,彼得入三昧。[235]

 

251. There is no fire like lust; there is no grip like hatred; there is no net like delusion; there is no river like craving.

 

252. Easily seen is the fault of others, but his own are difficult to see. Like chaff one winnows another’s faults, but hides his own, even as a crafty fowler hides behind sham branches.

 

253. He who seeks another’s faults, who is ever censorious -- his cankers grow. He is far from destruction of the cankers.

 

254. There is no track in the sky, and no recluse outside (the Buddha’s dispensation). Mankind delights in worldliness, but the Buddhas are free from worldliness.

255. There is no track in the sky, and no recluse outside (the Buddha’s dispensation). There are no conditioned things that are eternal, and no instability in the Buddhas.

 

19 - The Just (Dh.256-272)

256. Not by passing arbitrary judgements does a man become just; a wise man is he who investigates both right and wrong.

257. He who does not judge others arbitrarily, but passes judgement impartially according to truth, that sagacious man is a guardian of law and is called just.

__________________________

gripn. v. 緊握。craftya. 狡猾的。fowlern. 獵獸者。shamn.a. 騙局。

Recluse(samaa): here used in the special sense of those who have reached the four supramundane stages.(沙門︰在此特指四沙門果) arbitrarilyadv. 任意地。

251 無火等於貪欲,無執著如瞋恚,無網等於愚癡,

無河流如愛欲。[236]

 

252 易見他人過,自見則為難。揚惡如颺糠,已過則覆匿,

如彼狡博者[237],隱匿其格利[238][239]

 

253 若見他人過,心常易忿[240]者,增長於煩惱;去斷惑遠矣。

 

254 ~ 255

254 虛空無道跡,外道無沙門。眾生喜虛妄,如來無虛妄。

255 虛空無道跡,外道無沙門。五蘊無常住,諸佛無動亂。

 

十九、法住品

256 ~ 257

256 鹵莽處事故,不為法住[241]者。智者應辨別──孰正與孰邪。

257 導人不鹵莽,如法而公平,智者護於法,是名法住者。

258. One is not wise because one speaks much. He who is peaceable, friendly and fearless is called wise.

 

259.A man is not versed in Dhamma because he speaks much. He who, after hearing even a little Dhamma, does not neglect it but personally realizes its truth directly and is not heedless of it, is truly versed in the Dhamma.

 

260.A monk is not an Elder because his head is gray. He is but ripe in age, and he is called one grown old in vain.

261.One in whom there is truthfulness, virtue, inoffensiveness, restraint and self-mastery, who is free from defilements and is wise -- he is truly called an Elder.

 

262. Not by mere eloquence nor by beauty does a man become accomplished, if he is jealous, selfish and deceitful.

263. But he in whom these are wholly destroyed, uprooted and extinct, and who has cast out hatred -- that wise man is truly accomplished.

 

 

 

 

 

 

__________________________

eloquencen. 雄辯,(流利的)口才

258 不以多言故,彼即為智者。安靜無怨怖,是名為智者。[242]

 

259 不以多言故,彼為持法者。彼雖聞少分,但由身見法[243]
於法不放逸,是名持法者。

 

260 ~261

260 不因彼白頭,即得為長老。彼年齡虛熟,徒有長老名。

261 於彼具真實,具法[244]不殺生,節制並調伏,彼有智慧人。除滅諸垢穢,實名為長老。[245]

 

262 ~263

262 ..虛偽者,雖以其辯才,或由相端嚴,不為善良人。

263 若斬斷此心,拔根及除滅,彼捨瞋智者,名為善良人。[246]

 

264. Not by shaven head does a man who is undisciplined and untruthful become a monk. How can he who is full of desire and greed be a monk?

265.He who wholly subdues evil both small and great is called a monk, because he has overcome all evil.

 

266. He is not a monk just because he lives on others’ alms. Not by adopting outward form does one become a true monk.

267. Whoever here (in the Dispensation) lives the holy life, transcending both merit and demerit, and walks with understanding in this world — he is truly called a monk.

 

268. Not by observing silence does one become a sage, if he be foolish and ignorant. But that man is wise who, as if holding a balance-scale, accepts only the good.

269. The sage, (thus) rejecting the evil, is truly a sage. Since he comprehends both (present and future) worlds, he is called a sage.

 

270.He is not a noble who injures living beings. He is called a noble because he is harmless towards all living beings.

 

271. Not by rules and observances, not even by much learning, ; nor by gain of absorption, nor by a life of seclusion.

272. Nor by thinking: “I enjoy the bliss of renunciation, which is not experienced by the worldling.” Should you, O monks, rest content, until the utter destruction of the cankers(arahatship) is reached.

 

264 ~265

264 若破戒妄語,削髮非沙門。充滿欲與貪,云何為沙門?

265 彼息滅諸惡──無論大與小,因息滅諸惡,故名為沙門。

 

266 ~267

266 僅向他行乞,不即是比丘。行宗教法儀,亦不為比丘。

267 僅捨善與惡,修於梵行者,以知住此世[247],彼實名比丘。

 

268 ~269

268 愚昧無知者,不以默然故,而名為牟尼。智者如權衡[248]

269 捨惡取其善,乃得為牟尼。彼知於兩界[249],故稱為牟尼。[250]

 

270 彼人非聖賢,以其殺生故。不害諸眾生,是名為聖者。

 

271 ~272

271 不以戒律行,或由於多聞,或由證三昧,或由於獨居,

272 謂:「受出家樂[251],非凡夫所能」。汝等漏未盡,
莫生保信想[252]

20 - The Path (Dh.273-289)

273. Of all paths the Eightfold Path is the best; of all truths the Four Noble Truths are the best; of all things passionlessness is the best; of men the Seeing One (the Buddha) is the best.

274. This is the only path; there is none other for the purification of insight. Tread this path, and you will bewilder Māra.

275.Walking upon this path you will make an end of suffering. Having discovered how to pull out the thorn of lust, I make known the path.

276. You yourselves must strive; the Buddhas only point the way. Those meditative ones who tread the path are released from the bonds of Māra.

 

277.”All conditioned things are impermanent” -- when one sees this with wisdom, one turns away from suffering. This is the path to purification.

 

278. “All conditioned things are unsatisfactory” -- when one sees this with wisdom, one turns away from suffering. This is the path to purification.

 

 

 

_______________________

bewilderv. 使迷惑。

二十、道

 

273 ~276[253]

273 八支.道中勝,四句.諦中勝,離欲.法中勝,具眼.兩足勝[254]

274 實唯此一道。無餘知見淨。汝等順此行。魔為之惑亂。

275 汝順此道行,使汝苦滅盡。知我所說道,得除去荊棘。

276 汝當自努力!如來唯說者。隨禪定行者,解脫魔繫縛。[255]

 

277 一切行無常[256]」,以[257]觀照時,得厭離於苦,
此乃清淨道。[258]

 

278 「一切行是苦」,以慧觀照時,得厭離於苦,此乃清淨道。[259]

279. “All things are not-self” -- when one sees this with wisdom, one turns away from suffering. This is the path to purification.

 

280. The idler who does not exert himself when he should, who though young and strong is full of sloth, with a mind full of vain thoughts -- such an indolent man does not find the path to wisdom.

 

281. Let a man be watchful of speech, well controlled in mind, and not commit evil bodily action. Let him purify these three courses of action, and win the path made known by the Great Sage.

 

282. Wisdom springs from meditation, without meditation wisdom wanes. Having known these two paths of progress and decline, let a man so conduct himself that his wisdom may increase.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

279 「一切法無我」,以慧觀照時,得厭離於苦,此乃清淨道。[260]

 

280 當努力時不努力,年雖少壯陷怠惰,意志消沈又懶弱,

怠者不以智得道。[261]

 

281 慎語而制意,不以身作惡。淨此三業[262]道,得聖所示道。[263]

 

282 瑜伽[264]生智,無瑜伽慧滅。了知此二道,及其得與失,

當自努力行,增長於智慧。[265]

283. Cut down the forest (of lust), but not the tree, from the forest springs fear. Having cut down the forest and the underbrush, be passionless, O monks!

 

284. For so long as the underbrush of desire, even the most subtle, of a man towards a woman is not cut down, his mind is in bondage, like the sucking calf to its mother.

 

285. Cut off your affection in the manner a man plucks with his hand an autumn lotus. Cultivate only the path to peace, Nibbāna, as made known by the Exalted One.

 

286. “Here shall I live during the rains, here in winter and summer” -- thus thinks the fool. He does not realize the danger (that death might intervene).

 

287. As a great flood carries away a sleeping village, so death seizes and carries away the man with a clinging mind, doting on his children and cattle.

 

288. For him who is assailed by death there is no protection by kinsmen. None there are to save him -- no sons, nor father nor relatives.

289. Realizing this fact, let the wise man, restrained by morality, hasten to clear the path leading to Nibbāna.

 

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underbrushn. 矮樹叢。 intervenev. 介於中間。 dotev. 溺愛。

283 ~ 284

283 應伐欲稠林[266],勿伐於樹木。從欲林生怖,當脫欲稠林。

284 男女欲絲絲,未斷心猶繫;如飲乳犢子,不離於母牛。[267]

 

285 自己斷除愛情,如以手折秋蓮。勤修寂靜之道。

善逝[268]所說涅槃。

 

286 「雨季我住此,冬夏亦住此」,此為愚夫想,而不覺危險。[269]

 

287 溺愛子與畜,其人心惑著,死神捉將去,如瀑流睡村。[270]

 

288 ~ 289

288 父子與親戚,莫能為救護。彼為死所制,非親族能救。

289 了知此義已,智者持戒律,通達涅槃路──迅速令清淨。[271]

21 - Miscellaneous (Dh.290-305)

290. If by renouncing a lesser happiness one may realize a greater happiness, let the wise man renounce the lesser, having regard for the greater.

 

291. Entangled by the bonds of hate, he who seeks his own happiness by inflicting pain on others, is never be delivered from hatred.

 

292. The cankers only increase, for those who are arrogant and heedless, who leave undone what should be done and do what should not be done.

293. The cankers cease for those mindful and clearly comprehending ones who always earnestly practise mindfulness of the body, who do not resort to what should not be done, and steadfastly pursue what should be done.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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inflictv. 給予(打擊),使遭受(損傷等),強加。

二十一、雜

290 若棄於小樂,得見於大樂。智者棄小樂,當見於大樂。[272]

 

291 施與他人苦,為求自己樂;彼為瞋繫縛,怨憎不解脫。[273]

 

292 ~ 293

292 應作而不作,不應作而作,傲慢放逸者,彼之漏增長。

293 常精勤觀身,不作不應作,應作[274]則常作,觀者漏滅盡。[275]

294. Having slain mother (craving), father (self-conceit), two warrior kings (eternalism and nihilism), and destroyed a country (sense organs and sense objects) together with its treasurer (attachment and lust), ungrieving goes the holy man.

295. Having slain mother, father, two Brahmin kings (two extreme views), and a tiger as the fifth (the five mental hindrances), ungrieving goes the holy man.

 

296.Those disciples of Gotama ever awaken happily who day and night constantly practise the recollection of the Qualities of the Buddha.

297. Those disciples of Gotama ever awaken happily who day and night constantly practise the Recollection of the Qualities of the Dhamma.

298. Those disciples of Gotama ever awaken happily who day and night constantly practise the recollection of the Qualities of the Sagha.

299. Those disciples of Gotama ever awaken happily who day and night constantly practise Mindfulness of the Body.

300. Those disciples of Gotama ever awaken happily whose minds by day and night delight in the practice of non-violence.

301. Those disciples of Gotama ever awaken happily whose minds by day and night delight in the practice of meditation.

 

 

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eternalismn. 常見。 nihilismn. 斷見。 recollectionn. 回憶,記憶。

294 ~ 295

294 殺愛欲母與慢父,殺剎帝利族二王[276]

王國.殺其從臣[277],趨向無憂婆羅門。

295 殺愛欲母與慢父,殺婆羅門族二王,

殺其虎將第五疑[278],趨向無憂[279]婆羅門。[280]

 

296 ~ 301

296 喬達摩弟子,常善自醒覺,無論晝與夜,彼常念佛陀。

297 喬達摩弟子,常善自醒覺,無論晝與夜,彼常念達摩。

298 喬達摩弟子,常善自醒覺,無論晝與夜,彼常念僧伽。

299 喬達摩弟子,常善自醒覺,無論晝與夜,彼常念於[281]

300 喬達摩弟子,常善自醒覺,無論晝與夜,常樂不殺生。

301 喬達摩弟子,常善自醒覺,無論晝與夜,心常樂禪定。

 

 

302. Difficult is life as a monk; difficult is it to delight therein. Also difficult and sorrowful is household life. Suffering comes from association with unequals, suffering comes from wandering in sasāra. Therefore, be not an aimless wanderer, be not a pursuer of suffering.

 

303. He who is full of faith and virtue, and possesses good repute and wealth—he is respected everywhere, in whatever land he travels.

 

304. The good shine even from afar, like the Himalaya mountain. But the wicked are unseen, like arrows shot in the night.

 

305. He who sits alone, sleeps alone and walks alone, who is strenuous and subdues himself alone, will find delight in the solitude of the forest.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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sasāran. 輪迴。 solituden. 隱居,孤獨,寂寞

302出家愛樂難[282]在家生活難[283]非儔共住苦[284]

輪迴往來苦。故不應往來,隨從於痛苦。[285]

 

303 正信而具戒,得譽及[286]者,彼至於何處,處處受尊敬。[287]

 

304 善名揚遠方,高顯如雪山[288]。惡者如夜射,雖近不能見。[289]

 

305 獨坐與獨臥,獨行而不倦,彼獨自調御,喜樂於林中。[290]

22 - The State of Woe (Dh.306-319)

306. The liar goes to the state of woe; also he who, having done (wrong), says, “I did not do it.” Men of base actions both, on departing they share the same destiny in the other world.

 

307. There are many evil characters and uncontrolled men wearing the saffron robe. These wicked men will be born in states of woe because of their evil deeds.

 

308. It would be better to swallow a red-hot iron ball, blazing like fire, than as an immoral and uncontrolled monk to eat the alms of the people.

 

309. Four misfortunes befall the reckless man who consorts with another’s spouse acquisition of demerit, disturbed sleep, ill-repute and (rebirth in) states of woe.

310. Such a man acquires demerit and an unhappy birth in the future. Brief is the pleasure of the frightened man and woman, and the king imposes heavy punishment. Hence, let no man consort with another’s spouse.

 

 

 

 

 

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saffronn. 橙黃色,番紅花。 swallowv. 吞。consortv. 陪伴。

二十二、地

306 說妄語者墮地獄,或已作言「我無作」。此二惡業者死後,他世同受地獄苦。[291]

 

307 多袈裟纏頸,惡行不節制,惡人以惡業,終墮於地獄。[292]

 

308 若破戒無制,受人信施食,不如吞鐵丸──